By Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development
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Extra resources for Agricultural Trade and Poverty: Making Policy Analysis Count
In each of these years, one sixth of the relevant benchmark policy is eliminated, while the simulations provide identical results between 1997 and 2004. The model is allowed to settle down for five years after the final year of phase-in. Policy reductions are only implemented in the high-income regions defined as Australia and New Zealand, Canada, the European Union and EFTA countries, High-Income Asia, and the United States. In the case of tariffs, only positive tariffs are reduced. e. are acting as subsidies.
Feed grains and protein crops enter the country with low duties since Taiwan does not produce enough feed domestically. No PSE information is available for Taiwan. Hong Kong and Singapore have no agriculture production. 43 The United States The United States has a myriad of policies affecting agriculture. We focus on the main key policy instruments relevant to our trade liberalisation analysis. Since 1997, the United States has been following an opposite route to the European Union, increasing farm support levels to most commodities including exportable crops through three major instruments.
6 billion. The total direct payments amounted to about ECU 20 billion in 1998-99, and the AMS for Europe was in excess of ECU 46 billion for 1998-99, the most recent notification to the WTO (WTO, various). EFTA countries subsidise and protect their agriculture even more than the EU-15 countries do. They rely on trade restrictions, domestic subsidies, and export subsidies to get rid of production surpluses (Norway). Their aggregate PSE was 63% for Iceland, 66% for Norway, and 71% for Switzerland in 2000.
Agricultural Trade and Poverty: Making Policy Analysis Count by Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development