By Thomas M. Schmitt
A textual content and reference giving a pragmatic account of equipment the decision and comprehension of commercially vital person surfactants, in addition to these in compounds. Describes the make-up and structural drawings for an array of surfactants, experiences suggestions for settling on them within the surroundings, and extra.
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Additional info for Analysis of Surfactants
A methanol/water solution of the anionic can be passed through a mixed-bed ion exchange column and eluted with methanol. The eluate contains the nonionic material, which may be determined gravimetrically. This procedure is quantitative for oil in alkyl sulfates and alkylether sulfates, but gives low recovery with LAS and almost no recovery when applied to paraffin sulfonates and oc-olefin sulfonates (10). E. Inorganic Salts Impurities in anionic surfactants include sulfate salts from the sulfonation reaction and perhaps residual catalyst from previous steps, such as the KOH catalyst that may have been used to prepare the ethoxylated alcohol which was subsequently sulfated.
For more precise characterization of the the nature of the oil, GC, LC, and MS may be used. HPLC is capable of simultaneous determination of unsulfonated alkylbenzenes and of sulfones (54-56). HPLC usually gives higher values for unsulfonated material than does the gravimetric method, presumably because volatile material is lost when performing the latter (13). Procedure: Determination of Unsulfonated Alkylbenzenes by Extraction and GC (57) A 100-mg solid sample is extracted for 1 hr in an ultrasonic bath with 10 mL «-hexane.
Direct ion chromatographic analysis of a surfactant may require the addition of a low molecular weight alcohol to the aqueous buffer. 1. Total Inorganic Salts An accurate value for total inorganic salts can be obtained by weighing that portion of the sample insoluble in alcohol. The following procedure specifies use of isopropanol. ASTM methods D1568 and D1570 specify ethanol (6,7). Procedure: Gravimetric Method for Determination of Total Inorganic Salts in Anionic Surfactants (Alcohol Insoluble Matter) Dissolve an accurately weighed quantity of sample of about 10 g in 200 mL anhydrous 2-PrOH in a 400-mL beaker.
Analysis of Surfactants by Thomas M. Schmitt