By Professor Dr. med. Josef Rickenbacher, Professor Dr. med. Alex M. Landolt, Professor Dr. med. Karl Theiler, Professor Dr. med. Heinrich Scheier, Professor Dr. med. Jean Siegfried, Professor Dr. med. Franz J. Wagenhäuser (auth.)
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130dy of vcrlcbr" Fig. 39. Midcervical vertebra of an adult. Articular surfaces are shown in blue p PO"'lcrior luhcrcle Fig. 40. Fifth and sixth cervical vertebrae seen from the right. Interlocking of articular process p and vertebral notch n (opposing surfaces hatched) differentiated from the mesenchymal tissue occupying the intercondylar spaces. The "menisci" consist of a narrow crescentic intracapsular part continuous with a wider extracapsular part that contains fat in adults. As weIl as connective and fatty tissue, there is a good supply of blood vessels, mostly capillary, especiaIlY at the outer margin (Fig.
They are the most frequently demonstrated spinal malformations of elinical relevance, though the numbers certainly vary with the method of investigation (roentgenographic, elinical, anatomic). According to figures compiled by TAILLARD (1957) and by HOEFFKEN and WOLFERS (1974) 5- 7% of Caucasians have a eleft in the pars interarticularis of a vertebral arch. The condition has been found in as many as 26% of Eskimos (STEWART 1953). l IV V VI VII 111 IV V VI VlI~-..... , --' 1111---_ _ _ _- - - - ' - - - - , IV~-----------'--__, V Cf) Fig.
E) Range of Movement fJ) Flexion and extension are greatest in the cervical spine. Their range can be measured in roentgenograms as the angle between lines joining the anterior borders of the axis and C VII in full flexion and in full extension. This is about 60°. It is freely attainable because the cervical articular processes slide over one another and because the articular capsules of the facet joints are wide and loose. In the thoracic spine flexion and extension are so much limited by the rib cage that extension into lordosis is usually impossible.
Applied Anatomy of the Back by Professor Dr. med. Josef Rickenbacher, Professor Dr. med. Alex M. Landolt, Professor Dr. med. Karl Theiler, Professor Dr. med. Heinrich Scheier, Professor Dr. med. Jean Siegfried, Professor Dr. med. Franz J. Wagenhäuser (auth.)