By B. Shackel (Auth.)
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In such situations, the operator must first bring the control into line with the target and then make continuous adjustments to 'hold' it as accurately as possible. If he cannot look ahead at the actual course, he needs information about the past and present state of the target to help him predict its future behaviour. He also needs full and immediate information of the results of his control actions, so that he knows the error or discrepancy between the target and follower in order to try to reduce this to a minimum.
3 The thick black line traces the large and erratic path of the centre of rotation at the shoulder while the arm is being raised. Complex anatomical factors such as this must affect the correct positioning of controls. Absence of visible movement of the body does not mean absence of physical work. Some parts of the body are always working, even during sleep, although muscular activity is then undoubtedly at a minimum. On other occasions many muscles are involved in maintaining the posture of the trunk, head or limbs in any desired position.
6a) was somewhat confusing. It was easy to put the connecting jack into the wrong socket and adjust the wrong knob, or leave the right knob at the wrong setting, or even displace a knob by mistake when plugging or unplugging the jack. It was not possible to decide the best layout of these twenty-four connecting switches and potentiometer knobs from the published literature of ergonomics. 6b) was found to give faster performance and only one tenth of the errors than the original layout. Since some of the setting errors on this panel, on the prototype machine, had taken a day or two to find (an experience which no doubt will have been familiar to any reader who has used analogue computers) this decrease in the number of errors is clearly of great importance.
Applied Ergonomics Handbook. Volume 1 by B. Shackel (Auth.)